How it works

Learn how hashgraph and Hedera network services work together for you to create an entirely new class of applications.

Hashgraph consensus

Hedera is the only public ledger that uses hashgraph consensus, a faster, more secure alternative to blockchain consensus mechanisms. Hashgraph works efficiently to verify transactions while ensuring the highest standard of security to prevent malicious attacks. Hashgraph achieves high-throughput with 10,000+ cryptocurrency transactions per second today and low-latency finality in seconds from its innovative gossip about gossip protocol and virtual voting. Once consensus is reached, it is available on the public ledger for everyone to transparently see.

Public ledger


Hedera Hashgraph is a public ledger of transactions – a secure, shared database that everyone can read from and write to.

A copy of the ledger, which only persists the latest state, is stored on each node. It's these core concepts of distributed consensus and decentralization that make public ledgers the most transparent way to store data.

Network nodes


The public ledger is stored on mainnet nodes initially run by the Hedera Governing Council. In the future, mainnet nodes will be permissionless, able to be run by anyone. Mainnet nodes come to consensus on the validity and order of transactions.

Mirror nodes can be run by anyone and offer a flexible and cost-effective way to query historical data without a loss in trust.

Hedera network services

Hedera network services are a set of APIs that allow you to create accounts, mint and configure tokens, store hashes of files, write data to the ledger, and much more.

Each API call has a transaction fee based on the processing and storage required. Hedera SDKs make it easy to access the API in your favorite language.

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Token Service

The Hedera Token Service (HTS) enables the configuration, minting, and management of fungible and non-fungible tokens on Hedera without needing to set up and deploy a smart contract.

Consensus Service

Develop applications like stock markets, audit logs, stable coins, or new network services that require high throughput and decentralized trust.

File Service

Web 3.0 promises privacy while enhancing the ability to trust people online. Manage your user’s identity, certifications, and digital footprint on the public ledger.

Smart Contract

The tokenized economy will change how we define ownership. Smart contracts use the Solidity language to create and exchange assets.

Decentralized applications

Applications and microservices that use a public ledger provide greater transparency and trust than ever before. This makes entirely new things possible, like a music streaming service paying artists directly or a disintermediated ad network that doesn't require audits. A fairer, more secure, digital future is being decentralized on Hedera. Make it yours.