UCL Algorand


Algorand uses a "pure-proof-of-stake" (PPoS) system where relay nodes store the entire ledger and non-relay nodes store up to approximately 1,000 blocks.

UCL Cardano


Cardano is the only "unspent transaction output" (UTXO)-based system in the comparison set. In Cardano, nodes store every transaction ever made.

UCL Ethereum

Ethereum 2.0

Ethereum is a commonly used blockchain undergoing its transition from proof-of-work (Ethereum 1.0) to proof-of-stake (Ethereum 2.0).

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In Hedera, “proof-of-stake” (PoS) is used to protect the network via a virtual-voting algorithm. Token holders stake Hedera’s native cryptocurrency to nodes, adding weight to a node’s voting power.

UCL Polkadot


In Polkadot’s “nominated-proof-of-stake” (NPoS), each node delegates stake across 16 validators, among which the stake is divided equally.

UCL Tezos


In Tezos’ “liquid-proof-of-stake” (LPoS) consensus mechanism, token holders delegate their validation rights to other token holders (called validators) without transferring ownership of their tokens.